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Please respond using peer reviewed articles no greater than 5 years
Explain the action of thyroid hormone and how this impacts the diagnosis. Your answer should contain the impact of the thyroid hormone on functions in the body.
When the thyroid is underactive causing hormone production to drop it is known as hypothyroidism and can affect many different systems in the human body. Mental function, metabolism, and energy levels can be affected by hypothyroidism. The thyroid gland, anterior pituitary gland, and hypothalamus comprise a self-regulatory circuit called the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, (Shahid MA, Ashraf MA, Sharma S. Physiology, Thyroid Hormone, 2020). Hypothyroidism can be manifested as bradycardia, cold intolerance and weight gain – all of which are noted from the case study. Impact on functions on the body include affecting fertility, ovulation, and menstruation. Thyroid hormones play an important role in the CNS and cause fatigue, poor memory and slowed speech. Bone growth in children is related to thyroid hormones.
As Thyroid Stimulation Hormone (TSH) levels rise, explain how this impacts the negative-feedback mechanism in the body.
The hypothalamic-pituitary axis regulates TSH release through hypothalamic neurons that secrete thyroid releasing hormone (TRH), a hormone that stimulates thyrotrophs in the anterior pituitary to secrete TSH,(Pirahanchi Y, Toro F, Jialal I. Physiology, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) [Updated 2020 Jun 28]. T4 when entering circulation converts to T3 through a process known as deiodination. T4 and T3 can exert negative feedback on TSH levels. The predominant inhibitor of TSH secretion is T3. Loss of negative inhibition on the anterior pituitary is represented in primary hypothyroidism and in contrast TSH levels go down in primary hyperthyroidism.
What are the roles of Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the body?
Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are released by the thyroid gland. Regulation of your weight, energy levels, internal temperature, skin, hair and nail growth is carried out by these hormones. According to,, T3 and T4 increase the basal metabolic rate. They make all of cells in the body work harder, so the cells need more energy too and has the following effects, for example:
Body temperature rises
Faster pulse and stronger heartbeat
Food is used up more quickly because energy stored in the liver and muscles is broken down
The brain matures (in children)
Growth is promoted (in children).
Activation of the nervous system leads to improved concentration and faster reflexes.
Shahid MA, Ashraf MA, Sharma S. Physiology, Thyroid Hormone. [Updated 2020 May 18]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. Available from:
Pirahanchi Y, Toro F, Jialal I. Physiology, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) [Updated 2020 Jun 28]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. Available from: [Internet]. Cologne, Germany: Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG); 2006-. How does the thyroid gland work? 2010 Nov 17 [Updated 2018 Apr 19]. Available from:


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